Sandberg and Thomas [Phys. Rev. Lett. **130**, 085001 (2023)] proposed a scheme to generate ultrashort, high-energy pulses of XUV photons though dephasingless photon acceleration in a beam-driven plasma wakefield. An ultrashort laser pulse is placed in the plasma wake behind a relativistic electron bunc…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025210] Published Fri Feb 16, 2024

]]>When a refractive index modulation of dispersive medium moves at the speed of light in vacuum, an incident electromagnetic wave, depending on its frequency, either is totally transmitted with a phase shift, or forms a standing wave, or is totally reflected with the frequency upshift. The luminal mir…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, L023202] Published Thu Feb 15, 2024

]]>Inhomogeneous mixing by stationary convective cells set in a fixed array is a particularly simple route to layering. Layered profile structures, or staircases, have been observed in many systems, including drift-wave turbulence in magnetic confinement devices. The simplest type of staircase occurs i…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025209] Published Wed Feb 14, 2024

]]>It was observed experimentally that after crossing a waveguide filled with a neutral gas a short powerful microwave pulse leaves a periodic glow of plasma along the waveguide, persisting for several tens of nanoseconds. A theoretical model is presented which in combination with numerical simulations…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025208] Published Tue Feb 13, 2024

]]>We discuss conditions for the enhancement of fusion reactivities arising from different choices of energy distribution functions for the reactants. The key element for potential gains in fusion reactivity is identified in the functional dependence of the tunneling coefficient on the energy, ensuring…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025207] Published Fri Feb 09, 2024

]]>Ionization is a problematic quantity in that it does not have a well-defined thermodynamic definition and yet it is a key parameter within plasma modeling. One still therefore aims to find a consistent and unambiguous definition for the ionization state. Within this context we present finite-tempera…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, L023201] Published Thu Feb 08, 2024

]]>In this study, the spatiotemporal evolution of full cycle of high-intensity dc argon arc discharge at atmospheric pressure is investigated by using a transferred arc device, which is easy to be directly observed in the experiment. Combining the voltage and current waveforms with high-speed images, t…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025205] Published Tue Feb 06, 2024

]]>We investigate the accelerator stage of a plasma-modulated plasma accelerator (P-MoPA) [Jakobsson *et al.*, Phys. Rev. Lett. **127**, 184801 (2021)] using both the paraxial wave equation and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We show that adjusting the laser and plasma parameters of the modulator stage …

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025206] Published Tue Feb 06, 2024

]]>The target gain greater than unity achieved in a recent fusion experiment was made possible by using additional laser energy at fixed power and controlling sources of degradation. This resulted in increased compression of the fuel and a high fusion yield corresponding to a novel physical regime. This paper describes the experimental evidence for these critical aspects and new observables.

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025203] Published Mon Feb 05, 2024

]]>In 2022, a National Ignition Facility controlled-fusion experiment reached a target gain $G>1$, with the fusion energy produced exceeding the amount of laser energy required to drive the target. This result was obtained thanks to careful design described in this paper. This design has been shown to be robust and allows a better understanding of the physical conditions necessary to reach ignition.

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025204] Published Mon Feb 05, 2024

]]>Proton bunches with maximum energies between 12 and 22 MeV were emitted from submicrometer-thin plastic foils upon irradiation by laser pulses with peak intensity of $4\times {10}^{20}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{W}/{\mathrm{cm}}^{2}$. The images of the protons by a magnetic quadrupole doublet on a screen remained consistently larger by a factor of 10 com…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025201] Published Fri Feb 02, 2024

]]>The properties of plasmas in the low-density limit are described by virial expansions. Analytical expressions are known from Green's function approaches only for the first three virial coefficients. Accurate path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations have recently been performed for the uniform el…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025202] Published Fri Feb 02, 2024

]]>Quasimonoenergetic GeV-scale protons are predicted to be efficiently generated via radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) when the foil thickness is matched with the laser intensity, e.g., ${L}_{\mathrm{mat}}$ of several nm to 100 nm for ${10}^{19}-{10}^{22}\mathrm{W}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}{\mathrm{cm}}^{-2}$ available in laboratory. However, nonmonoenergetic protons with …

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015208] Published Fri Jan 26, 2024

]]>Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations are able to model the generation of disk-shaped plasma, driven by laser ablation from a current-carrying rod in a pulsed-power machine producing azimuthal magnetic fields of $2-3$ MG. The plasma at such extreme conditions is unique in that the paramete…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015207] Published Wed Jan 24, 2024

]]>Understanding magnetic field growth in astrophysical objects is a persistent challenge. In stars and galaxies, turbulent flows with net kinetic helicity are believed to be responsible for driving large-scale magnetic fields. However, numerical simulations have demonstrated that such helical dynamos …

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015206] Published Fri Jan 19, 2024

]]>Shot-to-shot electron beam pointing instability in the plasma bubble, defined here as electron beam pointing jitter (EBJ), is a long-standing problem that limits the potential of the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) in a range of demanding applications. In general, EBJ is caused by variations in l…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015204] Published Tue Jan 16, 2024

]]>A common approach to assess the nature of energy conversion in a classical fluid or plasma is to compare power densities of the various possible energy conversion mechanisms. A leading research area is quantifying energy conversion for systems that are not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), a…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015205] Published Tue Jan 16, 2024

]]>Powerful astrophysical sources are known to interact with their surroundings via extreme radiation-plasma interactions resulting from large quantities of emitted nonthermal radiation. This paper studies the physical processes involved in such interactions, combining analytical approximations with numerical simulations, and unveils a complex sequence of particle acceleration processes.

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015203] Published Mon Jan 08, 2024

]]>Magnetic fields influence ion transport in plasmas. Straightforward comparisons of experimental measurements with plasma theories are complicated when the plasma is inhomogeneous, far from equilibrium, or characterized by strong gradients. To better understand ion transport in a partially magnetized…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015201] Published Fri Jan 05, 2024

]]>We investigate chaotic impurity transport in toroidal fusion plasmas (tokamaks) from the point of view of passive advection of charged particles due to $\mathbf{E}\times \mathbf{B}$ drift motion. We use realistic tokamak profiles for electric and magnetic fields as well as toroidal rotation effects, and consider also the eff…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015202] Published Fri Jan 05, 2024

]]>Terahertz (THz) emissions from fast electron and ion currents driven in relativistic, femtosecond laser-foil interactions are examined theoretically. We first consider the radiation from the energetic electrons exiting the backside of the target. Our kinetic model takes account of the coherent trans…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065211] Published Fri Dec 29, 2023

]]>By producing localized wave regions at the ends of an open-field-line magnetic confinement system, ponderomotive walls can be used to differentially confine different species in the plasma. Furthermore, if the plasma is rotating, this wall can be magnetostatic in the laboratory frame, resulting in s…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065210] Published Wed Dec 27, 2023

]]>This paper proposes a transient three-dimensional model to simulate microwave-induced discharges in a waveguide-based plasma source under intermediate pressures. A plane-symmetric simplification method is applied to simplify half of the microwave plasma source in the calculation domain, dramatically…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065209] Published Thu Dec 21, 2023

]]>Recent studies have revealed the significant influence of finite resistivity on high-energy-density plasmas, contrary to the previous findings of Jukes [J. Fluid Mech. **16**, 177 (1963)]. This paper reexamines Jukes' theory in the context of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability in magnetohydrodynamics w…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065208] Published Wed Dec 13, 2023

]]>Kappa-distributed velocities in plasmas are common in a wide variety of settings, from low-density to high-density plasmas. To date, they have been found mainly in space plasmas, but are recently being considered also in the modeling of laboratory plasmas. Despite being routinely employed, the origi…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065207] Published Fri Dec 08, 2023

]]>The article presents the results of the study of electrons, emitted by the plasma of a low-inductance vacuum spark. It was found that a 50-kA discharge with a 3.4-µs period of current oscillations produces electrons with the energy higher than 100 keV, which leave the discharge plasma in the directi…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065206] Published Wed Dec 06, 2023

]]>The contribution of the electron drift instability to anomalous electron transport is experimentally assessed in a Hall effect discharge. The transport is represented by an anomalous collision frequency, which is related through quasilinear theory to the energy and growth rate of the instability. Th…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065204] Published Tue Dec 05, 2023

]]>The response of a two-dimensional plasma crystal to an externally imposed initial perturbation has been explored using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A two-dimensional (2D) monolayer of micron-sized charged particles (dust) is formed in the plasma environment under certain conditions. The part…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065202] Published Mon Dec 04, 2023

]]>We report on the experimental observation of the focusing effect of a $50\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{MeV}$ accelerator electron beam in a gas-discharge plasma target. The plasma is generated by igniting an electric discharge in two collinear quartz tubes, with the currents up to $1.5\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{kA}$ flowing in opposite directions in either of t…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065203] Published Mon Dec 04, 2023

]]>Magnetorotational instability–driven (MRI-driven) turbulence and dynamo phenomena are analyzed using direct statistical simulations. Our approach begins by developing a unified mean-field model that combines the traditionally decoupled problems of the large-scale dynamo and angular momentum transpor…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065201] Published Fri Dec 01, 2023

]]>Since the characteristic timescales of the various transport processes inside the discharge plasma span several orders of magnitude, it can be regarded as a typical fast-slow system. Interestingly, in this work, a special kind of complex oscillatory dynamics composed of a series of large-amplitude r…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055210] Published Mon Nov 27, 2023

]]>We present measurements of the temporal decay rate of one-dimensional (1D), linear Langmuir waves excited by an ultrashort laser pulse. Langmuir waves with relative amplitudes of approximately $6\%$ were driven by $1.7\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{J}$, $50\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{fs}$ laser pulses in hydrogen and deuterium plasmas of density ${n}_{e0}=8.4\times {10}^{17}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}{\mathrm{cm}}^{-3}$. Th…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055211] Published Mon Nov 27, 2023

]]>We present improved first-principle fermionic path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulation results for a dense partially ionized hydrogen (deuterium) plasma, for temperatures in the range $15\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}000\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{K}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\le T\le 400\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}000\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{K}$ and densities $7\times {10}^{-7}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{g}/{\mathrm{cm}}^{3}\le {\rho}_{H}\le 0.085\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{g}/{\mathrm{cm}}^{3}$ ($1.4\times {10}^{-6}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{g}/{\mathrm{cm}}^{3}\le {\rho}_{D}\le 0.17\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{g}/{\mathrm{cm}}^{3}$), corresponding to $100\ge {r}_{s}\ge 2$,…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055212] Published Mon Nov 27, 2023

]]>We report the study of a self-excited converging shock structure observed in a complex plasma medium. A high-density dust cloud of melamine formaldehyde particles is created and horizontally confined by a circular ring in a dc glow discharge plasma at a particular discharge voltage and pressure. Lat…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055209] Published Wed Nov 22, 2023

]]>We report a proposal to observe the two-photon Breit-Wheeler process in plasma driven by compact lasers. A high-charge electron bunch can be generated from laser plasma wakefield acceleration when a tightly focused laser pulse propagates in a subcritical density plasma. The electron bunch scatters w…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055208] Published Tue Nov 21, 2023

]]>Inertial confinement fusion ignition requires high inflight shell velocity, good energy coupling between the hotspot and shell, and high areal density at peak compression. Three-dimensional asymmetries caused by imperfections in the drive symmetry or target can grow and damage the coupling and confi…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, L053203] Published Mon Nov 20, 2023

]]>The theoretical background of the nonperturbative method of spectral response to stochastic processes (SRSP) for measuring the nonreciprocal interparticle effective interactions in strongly coupled underdamped systems is described. Analytical expressions for vibrational spectral density of confined …

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055207] Published Fri Nov 17, 2023

]]>In this paper, a phase-space description of electron-positron pair creation will be applied, based on a Wigner transformation of the Klein-Gordon equation. The resulting theory is similar in many respects to the equations from the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism. However, in the former case, all p…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055205] Published Mon Nov 13, 2023

]]>For tokamaks with uniform magnetic shear, Martin and Taylor have proposed a symplectic map which has been used to describe the magnetic field lines at the plasma edge perturbed by an ergodic magnetic limiter. We propose an analytical magnetic field line map, based on the Martin-Taylor map, for a tok…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055206] Published Mon Nov 13, 2023

]]>A pulse of noninteracting charged particles in an unbounded gas, exposed to a low, constant, homogeneous electric field, was studied in both space and time using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The difference in electrical potential between the leading and trailing edges of the swarm results in …

[Phys. Rev. E 108, L053202] Published Mon Nov 13, 2023

]]>We present a staged hot-electron acceleration mechanism of the two-plasmon decay (TPD) instability in the transverse magnetic field under the parameters relevant to inertial confinement fusion experiments. After being accelerated by the forward electron plasma wave (FEPW) of TPD, the hot-electrons c…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, L053201] Published Tue Nov 07, 2023

]]>Volume plasma density gratings receive increasing interest since, compared to solid-state optical media, they posses significantly higher damage thresholds. The gratings are produced by counterpropagating laser pulses in underdense plasma. When analyzing their optical properties, usually they are as…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055204] Published Mon Nov 06, 2023

]]>The copropagation of two relativistic intense laser beams with orthogonal polarization in a parabolic plasma channel is studied analytically and numerically. A set of coupled equations for the evolution of the laser spot sizes and transverse centroids are derived by use of the variational approach. …

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055202] Published Thu Nov 02, 2023

]]>We study the dispersion properties of electron plasma waves, or plasmons, which can be excited in quantum plasmas in the nonlinear regime. In order to describe nonlinear electron response to finite amplitude plasmons, we apply the Volkov approach to nonrelativistic electrons. For that purpose, we us…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055203] Published Thu Nov 02, 2023

]]>The investigation of the converging shock-induced Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, which arises from the interaction of converging shocks with the interface between materials of differing densities in cylindrical capsules, is of significant importance in the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF).…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055201] Published Wed Nov 01, 2023

]]>With the advancement in the understanding of plasma discontinuous structures and the progress of related research, numerical methods for simulating plasmas based on continuous medium approach have encountered significant challenges. In this paper, a numerical model is presented to simulate the motio…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 045207] Published Mon Oct 23, 2023

]]>To achieve the highest possible laser intensities with the least laser energy, shorter-wavelengths lasers are advantaged if they can be focused to spots of a few laser wavelengths and durations of several laser periods. However, the top laser pulse energies available nowadays are megajoules at near-…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 045208] Published Mon Oct 23, 2023

]]>We present simulation results of ultracold Sr plasma expansion in a quadrupole magnetic field by means of molecular dynamics. An analysis of plasma evolution influenced by a magnetic field is given. Plasma confinement time behavior under variation of magnetic field strength is estimated. Similarity …

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 045209] Published Mon Oct 23, 2023

]]>The fast ignition paradigm for inertial fusion offers increased gain and tolerance of asymmetry by compressing fuel at low entropy and then quickly igniting a small region. Because this hot spot rapidly disassembles, the ions must be heated to ignition temperature as quickly as possible, but most ig…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 045206] Published Mon Oct 16, 2023

]]>Benign termination of mega-ampere (MA) level runaway current has been convincingly demonstrated in recent JET and DIII-D experiments, establishing it as a leading candidate for runaway mitigation on ITER. This comes in the form of a runaway flush by parallel streaming loss along stochastic magnetic …

[Phys. Rev. E 108, L043201] Published Mon Oct 16, 2023

]]>We present a model of the electron thermal conductivity of a laser-produced plasma. The model, supported by Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations, predicts that laser absorption reduces conductivity by forcing electrons out of a Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium, which results in the depletion of both low-ve…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 045205] Published Fri Oct 13, 2023

]]>The computational and theoretical analysis carried out in this article demonstrates the existence of a nontrivial mechanism for the compression of a submicron-sized gas bubble formed by a gas of classical ions and a gas of degenerate electrons. This mechanism fundamentally differs from conventional …

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 045203] Published Wed Oct 11, 2023

]]>We introduce a general, variational scheme for systematic approximation of a given Kohn-Sham free-energy functional by partitioning the density matrix into distinct spectral domains, each of which may be spanned by an independent diagonal representation without requirement of mutual orthogonality. I…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 045204] Published Wed Oct 11, 2023

]]>Possible existence of chaotic oscillations in ion dynamics in the sheath and presheath regions of a dusty plasma, induced by externally driven dust-charge fluctuation, is presented in this work. In a complex plasma, dust charge fluctuation occurs continuously with time due to the variation of electr…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 045202] Published Thu Oct 05, 2023

]]>Models for polarization drag—mechanical analog of the Faraday effect—are extended to include inertial corrections to the dielectrics properties of the rotating medium in its rest frame. Instead of the Coriolis-Faraday term originally proposed by Baranova and Zel'dovich [Proc. R. Soc. London A: Math.…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 045201] Published Mon Oct 02, 2023

]]>Finite-size effects in the static structure factor $S\left(k\right)$ are analyzed for an amorphous substance. As the number of particles is reduced, $S\left(0\right)$ increases greatly, up to an order of magnitude. Meanwhile, there is a decrease in the height of the first peak ${S}_{\mathrm{peak}}$. These finite-size effects are modeled acc…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 035211] Published Thu Sep 21, 2023

]]>Laser-direct-drive fusion target designs with solid deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel, a high-$Z$ gradient-density pusher shell (GDPS), and a Au-coated foam layer have been investigated through both 1D and 2D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. Compared with conventional low-$Z$ ablators and DT-push-on-DT tar…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 035209] Published Tue Sep 19, 2023

]]>We present experimental observations of ${\mathrm{K}}_{\beta}$ emission from highly charged Mg ions at solid density, driven by intense x rays from a free electron laser. The presence of ${\mathrm{K}}_{\beta}$ emission indicates the $n=3$ atomic shell is relocalized for high charge states, providing an upper constraint on the depression of …

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 035210] Published Tue Sep 19, 2023

]]>By means of one-dimensional, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell simulations considering the effects of energetic-ion injection, we study the harmonic structure of lower hybrid waves (LHWs) driven by energetic ions under the condition where the electron plasma frequency (${\omega}_{pe}$) is smaller than the elect…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 035208] Published Fri Sep 15, 2023

]]>We present new results on ionization by electron impacts in a dense plasma. We are interested in the density effect known as ionization potential depression and its role in atomic structure. Rather than using the well-known Stewart-Pyatt or Ecker-Kröll formulas for the ionization potential depressio…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 035207] Published Wed Sep 13, 2023

]]>Nonlocal electron transport is important for understanding laser-target coupling for laser-direct-drive (LDD) inertial confinement fusion (ICF) simulations. Current models for the nonlocal electron mean free path in radiation-hydrodynamic codes are based on plasma-physics models developed decades ag…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 035206] Published Fri Sep 08, 2023

]]>The properties of hydrogen at warm dense matter (WDM) conditions are of high importance for the understanding of astrophysical objects and technological applications such as inertial confinement fusion. In this work, we present extensive *ab initio* path integral Monte Carlo results for the electronic…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 035204] Published Wed Sep 06, 2023

]]>Advances in laser technology have led to ever-increasing laser intensities. As a result, in addition to the amplified spontaneous emission and pedestal, it has become necessary to accurately treat the relativistic rising edge component. This component has not needed much consideration in the past be…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 035205] Published Wed Sep 06, 2023

]]>The ion velocity distribution functions of thermonuclear plasmas generated by spherical laser direct drive implosions are studied using deuterium-tritium (DT) and deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion neutron energy spectrum measurements. A hydrodynamic Maxwellian plasma model accurately describes measure…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 035201] Published Tue Sep 05, 2023

]]>Strong shocks are essential components in many high-energy-density environments such as inertial confinement fusion implosions. However, the experimental measurements of the spatial structures of such shocks are sparse. In this paper, the soft x-ray emission of a shock front in a helium gas mixture …

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 035202] Published Tue Sep 05, 2023

]]>Magnetized target fusion approach to inertial confinement fusion involves the formation of strong shocks that travel along a magnetized plasma. Shocks, which play a dominant role in thermalizing the upstream kinetic energy generated in the implosion stage, are seldom free from perturbations, and the…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 035203] Published Tue Sep 05, 2023

]]>High-power electron cyclotron resonance discharge in a laboratory open trap is frequently accompanied by growth of electron cyclotron instabilities. We study a simple universal model that explains some of the stability conditions of such plasma observed experimentally, in particular, its crucial dep…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 025207] Published Fri Aug 25, 2023

]]>Collisionless shock acceleration, which transfers localized particle energies to nonthermal energetic particles via electromagnetic potential, is ubiquitous in space plasma. We investigate dynamics of collisionless electrostatic shocks that appear at the interface of two plasma slabs with different …

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 025208] Published Fri Aug 25, 2023

]]>A kinetic theory is developed to describe the longitudinal decay of two-ion decay (TID): The pump ion-acoustic wave (IAW) decays into two daughter IAWs with a longer wavelength. The instability growth rate and threshold are given by the theory. Both the simulations of full kinetic Vlasov and hybrid …

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 025206] Published Fri Aug 18, 2023

]]>In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions, the interface between the cryogenic DT fuel and the ablator is unstable to shock acceleration (the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, RM) and constant acceleration (Rayleigh-Taylor instability, RT). Instability growth at this interface can reduce the fina…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, L023202] Published Wed Aug 16, 2023

]]>Nonthermal velocity distributions with much greater tails than a Maxwellian have been observed for radical atoms in plasmas for a long time. Historically, such velocity distributions have been modeled by a two-temperature Maxwell distribution. In this paper, I propose a model based on collisional en…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 025204] Published Fri Aug 11, 2023

]]>Recent validation experiments on laser irradiation of polymer foils with and without implanted golden nanoparticles are discussed. First we analyze characteristics of craters, formed in the target after its interaction with the laser beam. Preliminary experimental results show significant production…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 025205] Published Fri Aug 11, 2023

]]>Preionization is believed to play an important role on the implosion of gas-puff Z pinches. Some experiments have used an external preionization source, e.g., UV light or electron beam. In contrast, other experiments rely completely on over voltage breakdown by the own generator's voltage pulse. How…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 025202] Published Wed Aug 09, 2023

]]>Degradation in the energy spread of accelerated protons due to the transverse instability induced transparency is one of the critical issues in the laser-driven radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) scheme. This issue is more severe for linearly polarized lasers due to enhanced heating of electrons.…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 025203] Published Wed Aug 09, 2023

]]>We study the sources of intense ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radiation (in the frequency range 1–6 GHz) arising during the development of high-voltage atmospheric discharges. The discharges were initiated in a long discharge gap by applying an approximately 1-MV pulse with positive or negative polarit…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 025201] Published Tue Aug 08, 2023

]]>Stochastic density functional theory (DFT) and mixed stochastic-deterministic DFT are burgeoning approaches for the calculation of the equation of state and transport properties in materials under extreme conditions. In the intermediate warm dense matter regime, a state between correlated condensed …

[Phys. Rev. E 108, L023201] Published Tue Aug 01, 2023

]]>In this paper, we present the theoretical formalism describing the collective ion dynamics of the nonideal Coulomb classical one-component plasmas on the basis of the self-consistent relaxation theory. The theory is adapted to account for correlations between the frequency relaxation parameters that…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 015206] Published Mon Jul 31, 2023

]]>We propose an approximate method to calculate ion partition functions in the context of the chemical-picture representation of plasmas as an interacting mixture of various ions and free electrons under the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium conditions. The method uses the superconfiguration approach an…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 015207] Published Mon Jul 31, 2023

]]>We present calculations of electrical resistivity for expanded boron, aluminum, titanium, and copper plasmas using the Ziman formulation in the framework of the average-atom model. Our results are compared to experimental data, as well as to other theoretical calculations, relying on the Ziman and K…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 015205] Published Wed Jul 26, 2023

]]>Laser-plasma accelerators can provide a compact method for acceleration of particles. The authors of this paper derive a three-dimensional analytic theory for a laser-plasma accelerator that some of the authors introduced earlier. Using theory and simulations, they evaluate the influence of various parameters on the stability of the accelerator and conclude that higher energies can be achieved than those demonstrated in the original proposal.

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 015204] Published Wed Jul 19, 2023

]]>Bose-Einstein condensation of a finite number of photons propagating inside a plasma-filled microcavity is investigated. The nonzero chemical potential is provided by the electrons, which induces a finite photon mass and allows condensation to occur. We derive an equation that models the evolution o…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, L013201] Published Mon Jul 17, 2023

]]>In this paper, we analyze and numerically simulate mechanisms for generating directed rf radiation by a low-intensity laser pulse train (LPT) propagating in air. The LPT ionizes the air, forming a plasma filament. The ionization process relies on the background level of radioactivity which plays an …

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 015203] Published Fri Jul 14, 2023

]]>We present an analytical study on the effects of the transverse plasma gradient in the blowout regime of a plasma wakefield accelerator. The analysis departs from a simple ballistic model of plasma electrons and allows us to derive a complete analytic solution for the pseudopotential and, consequent…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 015202] Published Wed Jul 12, 2023

]]>High-intensity laser solid interactions are capable of generating attosecond light bursts via high-harmonic generation—most work focuses on single beam interactions. In this paper, we perform a numerical investigation on the role of wavelength and polarization in relativistic, high-harmonic generati…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 015201] Published Fri Jul 07, 2023

]]>Optimal laser irradiation conditions for water-window (WW) x-ray emission (2.3–4.4 nm) from an Au plasma are investigated to develop a laboratory-scale WW x-ray source. A minimum Au target thickness of 1 $\mu \mathrm{m}$ is obtained for a laser intensity of ∼${10}^{13}$ W/${\mathrm{cm}}^{2}$ by observing the intensity drop in the WW sp…

[Phys. Rev. E 107, 065211] Published Wed Jun 28, 2023

]]>Magnetic fields are ubiquitous in astrophysics and they are generally believed to be generated by dynamo processes. The authors extend a well known model for a small-scale dynamo by including the effects of nonzero compressibility and a finite correlation time.

[Phys. Rev. E 107, 065210] Published Tue Jun 27, 2023

]]>We present a method for solving the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equation, based on analyticity properties of the equilibrium and initial condition through Cauchy-type integrals, that produces algebraic expressions for the distribution and field, i.e., the solution is expressed without integrals. Stand…

[Phys. Rev. E 107, L063201] Published Fri Jun 23, 2023

]]>Using three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we study how a pit on a metal surface evolves when driven by intense electrical current density $\mathbf{j}$. Redistribution of $\mathbf{j}$ around the pit initiates a feedback loop: $\mathbf{j}$ both reacts to and alters the electrical conductivity $\sigma $, through Joule heat…

[Phys. Rev. E 107, 065209] Published Thu Jun 22, 2023

]]>We show that an ultra-high-pressure plasma can be generated when an aligned nanowire is irradiated by a laser with relativistic transparent intensity. Using a particle-in-cell simulation, we demonstrate that the expanded plasma following the $z$ pinch becomes relativistically transparent and compresse…

[Phys. Rev. E 107, 065208] Published Thu Jun 15, 2023

]]>We study *ab initio* approaches for calculating x-ray Thomson scattering spectra from density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations based on a modified Chihara formula that expresses the inelastic contribution in terms of the dielectric function. We study the electronic dynamic structure fa…

[Phys. Rev. E 107, 065207] Published Wed Jun 14, 2023

]]>The spatial distribution of cosmic ray (CR) particles in the interstellar medium (ISM) is of major importance in radio astronomy, where its knowledge is essential for the interpretation of observations, and in theoretical astrophysics, where CRs contribute to the structure and dynamics of the ISM. L…

[Phys. Rev. E 107, 065206] Published Tue Jun 13, 2023

]]>Although the plasma-induced receiving and radiating near-field cutoff phenomena in the subwavelength regime are found of crucial importance in electromagnetic (EM) signal transmissions and plasma property studies, their mechanisms to a large extent remain unclear and undistinguished. In this paper, …

[Phys. Rev. E 107, 065204] Published Mon Jun 12, 2023

]]>We study the effects of redistributing superthermal electrons on bremsstrahlung radiation from hot relativistic plasma. We consider thermal and nonthermal distribution of electrons with an energy cutoff in the phase space and explore the impact of the energy cutoff on bremsstrahlung losses. We disco…

[Phys. Rev. E 107, 065205] Published Mon Jun 12, 2023

]]>The time-asymptotic state of a finite-amplitude perturbation in a collisionless and Maxwellian plasma is typically represented as a steady state of two nonlinearly superposed, counterpropagating Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) modes. Using high-resolution Vlasov-Poisson simulations, we show that the …

[Phys. Rev. E 107, 065203] Published Wed Jun 07, 2023

]]>Stochastic heating is a well-known mechanism through which magnetized particles may be energized by low-frequency electromagnetic waves. In its simplest version, under spatially homogeneous conditions, it is known to be operative only above a threshold in the normalized wave amplitude, which may be …

[Phys. Rev. E 107, 065201] Published Mon Jun 05, 2023

]]>When two intense laser beams cross at a small angle, the interference in the crossing area results in a finite intensity grating. We consider femtosecond laser filamentation in such a grating, in a situation when the process is largely confined to the grating maxima and leads to formation of a struc…

[Phys. Rev. E 107, 065202] Published Mon Jun 05, 2023

]]>The formation of correlated structures is of importance in many diverse contexts such as strongly coupled plasmas, soft matter, and even biological mediums. In all these contexts the dynamics are mainly governed by electrostatic interactions and result in the formation of a variety of structures. In…

[Phys. Rev. E 107, 055214] Published Wed May 24, 2023

]]>We demonstrate the capability of flying focus (FF) laser pulses with $\ell =1$ orbital angular momentum (OAM) to transversely confine ultrarelativistic charged particle bunches over macroscopic distances while maintaining a tight bunch radius. A FF pulse with $\ell =1$ OAM creates a radial ponderomotive barrier…

[Phys. Rev. E 107, 055213] Published Tue May 23, 2023

]]>Equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma liquids. Based on the stochastic thermal motion of simulated particles, the longitudinal and transverse phonon spectra are calculated, and used to determine the corresponding dispersion relations. Fro…

[Phys. Rev. E 107, 055211] Published Mon May 22, 2023

]]>A recent numerical treatment of data obtained by the Parker Solar Probe spacecraft describes the electron concentration in solar wind as a function of the heliocentric distance based on a Kappa distribution with spectral index $\kappa =5$. In this work, we derive and, subsequently, solve an entirely differe…

[Phys. Rev. E 107, 055212] Published Mon May 22, 2023

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