We demonstrate the efficient injection of a pulsed positron beam into a magnetic dipole trap and investigate the ensuing particle dynamics in the inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields. Bunches of $\sim {10}^{5}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}{e}^{+}$ were transferred from a buffer-gas trap into the field of a permanent magnet using a lossles…

[Phys. Rev. E 110, L023201] Published Fri Aug 09, 2024

]]>Modeling the nonequilibrium process between ions and electrons is of great importance in laboratory fusion ignition, laser-plasma interaction, and astrophysics. For hot and dense plasmas, theoretical descriptions of Coulomb collisions remain complicated due to quantum effect at short distances and s…

[Phys. Rev. E 110, 025202] Published Tue Aug 06, 2024

]]>A complete quasilinear model is derived for the electrostatic acceleration-driven lower hybrid drift instability in a uniform two-species low-beta plasma in which current is perpendicular to the background magnetic field. The model consists of coupled nonlinear velocity space diffusion equations for…

[Phys. Rev. E 110, 025201] Published Fri Aug 02, 2024

]]>To avoid damage in high-power laser systems, a chirped plasma-based grating is proposed for compressing laser pulses that have been previously stretched and amplified. This chirped grating is generated through the interaction of chirped pump laser pulses in a plasma slab. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simu…

[Phys. Rev. E 110, 015209] Published Tue Jul 30, 2024

]]>Bulk viscosity of a plasma consisting of strongly coupled diatomic ions is computed using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations are based on the rigid rotor one-component plasma, which is introduced as a model system that adds two degrees of molecular rotation to the traditional one-compon…

[Phys. Rev. E 110, 015208] Published Fri Jul 26, 2024

]]>In a dense plasma environment, the energy levels of an ion shift relative to the isolated ion values. This shift is reflected in the optical spectrum of the plasma and can be measured in, for example, emission experiments. In this work we use a recently developed method of modeling electronic states…

[Phys. Rev. E 110, 015207] Published Wed Jul 24, 2024

]]>Proton deflectometry is used in magnetized high-energy-density plasmas to observe electromagnetic fields. We describe a reconstruction algorithm to recover the electromagnetic fields from proton fluence data in 1-D. The algorithm is verified against analytic solutions and applied to example data. Ne…

[Phys. Rev. E 110, 015206] Published Thu Jul 18, 2024

]]>Improvement in the functionality of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device has been investigated through kinetic simulation. Previously, we achieved a neutron generation rate of ${10}^{6}$ neutrons per second, but higher rates and better plasma confinement are necessary for broader appl…

[Phys. Rev. E 110, 015203] Published Mon Jul 15, 2024

]]>We use a recently developed a kinetic model derived from the Dirac equation to study electromagnetic wave propagation in superstrong magnetic fields, such as in magnetars, where relativistic Landau quantization is prominent. The leading contribution to the conductivity tensor in such a plasma is cal…

[Phys. Rev. E 110, 015204] Published Mon Jul 15, 2024

]]>We investigate parametric decay instability (PDI) of circularly polarized Alfvén wave into daughter acoustic wave and backward Alfvén wave in magnetically dominated plasma, in which the magnetization parameter $\sigma $ (energy density ratio of background magnetic field to matter) exceeds unity. We analyze …

[Phys. Rev. E 110, 015205] Published Mon Jul 15, 2024

]]>The predicted implosion performance of deuterium-tritium fuel capsules in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments relies on precise calculations of the x-ray drive in laser-heated cavities (hohlraums). This requires accurate, spectrally dependent simulations of laser to x-ray conversi…

[Phys. Rev. E 110, L013201] Published Mon Jul 15, 2024

]]>A theoretical model for investigating the radiative transfer of an x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) pulse is developed based on a one-dimensional radiative transfer equation. The population dynamics of energy levels is obtained by rate equation approximation coupling with the Fokker-Planck equation,…

[Phys. Rev. E 110, 015201] Published Tue Jul 02, 2024

]]>We present electron transport calculations of shocked argon based on an average-atom modeling of the plasma and compare them with measurements, involving both incident and reflected shock waves. Since the corresponding experiments are subject to a 5 T magnetic field, the impact of the latter on the …

[Phys. Rev. E 110, 015202] Published Tue Jul 02, 2024

]]>We report on experimental and theoretical studies on the Stark profile of the He ii Paschen-$\alpha $ line over a wide range of plasma parameters. This line was emitted from a laser-induced plasma with electron densities in the range of $8.1\times {10}^{22}$–$4.46\times {10}^{24}\phantom{\rule{0.28em}{0ex}}{\mathrm{m}}^{-3}$ and electron temperatures of $1.2$–$7.6\phantom{\rule{0.28em}{0ex}}\mathrm{eV}$ as indepen…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 065214] Published Thu Jun 27, 2024

]]>The normal modes, i.e., the eigensolutions to the dispersion relation equation, are the most fundamental properties of a plasma. The real part indicates the intrinsic oscillation frequency while the imaginary part the Landau damping rate. In most of the literature, the normal modes of quantum plasma…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 065213] Published Mon Jun 24, 2024

]]>An efficient plasma compression scheme using azimuthally polarized light is proposed. Azimuthally polarized light possesses a donutlike intensity pattern, enabling it to compress and accelerate ions toward the optical axis across a wide range of parameters. When the light intensity reaches the relat…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 065211] Published Thu Jun 20, 2024

]]>The analytical expression for the conditions of the solid-fluid phase transition, i.e., the melting curve, for two-dimensional (2D) Yukawa systems is derived theoretically from the isomorph theory. To demonstrate that the isomorph theory is applicable to 2D Yukawa systems, molecular dynamical simula…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 065212] Published Thu Jun 20, 2024

]]>Shock-ignition effect in indirect-drive thermonuclear target is demonstrated on the base of numerical simulations. Thermonuclear gain (in relation to laser pulse energy) of a shock-ignited indirect-drive thermonuclear capsule is obtained, which is 22.5 times higher than that at a traditional spark i…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 065209] Published Fri Jun 14, 2024

]]>This paper investigates, by means of an analytically solvable one-dimensional model, the dissipation in a turbulent, nearly collisionless plasma. When applying a stochastic, external electric field, it is reported that the generalized entropy of the distribution function cascades from large to small scales in position and velocity space, rendering the stochastic heating irreversible.

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 065210] Published Fri Jun 14, 2024

]]>Here a mechanism for self-compression of laser pulses is presented, based on period density-modulated plasma. In this setup, two pump beams intersect at a small angle within the plasma. This interaction is facilitated by the ponderomotive ion mechanism, which causes a modulation in the density of pl…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 065208] Published Thu Jun 13, 2024

]]>Laser direct drive (LDD) inertial confinement fusion (ICF) involves irradiating a spherical target of thermonuclear fuel coated with an ablator, usually made of polystyrene. Laser energy absorption near the target surface leads to matter ablation, hydrodynamic shocks, and ultimately capsule implosio…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 065207] Published Wed Jun 12, 2024

]]>The temporal evolution of weak shocks in radiative media is theoretically investigated in this work. The structure of radiative shocks has traditionally been studied in a stationary framework. Their systematic classification is complex because layers of optically thick and thin regions alternate to …

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 065206] Published Mon Jun 10, 2024

]]>Collision between relativistic electron sheets and counterpropagating laser pulses is recognized as a promising way to produce intense attosecond x rays through coherent Thomson backscattering (TBS). In a double-layer scheme, the electrons in an ultrathin solid foil are first pushed out by an intens…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 065205] Published Thu Jun 06, 2024

]]>We use analytical methods and particle-in-cell simulation to investigate the origin of electrons accelerated by the process of direct laser acceleration driven by high-power laser pulses in preformed narrow cylindrical plasma channels. The simulation shows that the majority of accelerated electrons …

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 065204] Published Wed Jun 05, 2024

]]>Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of electrically exploded aluminum and copper rods demonstrate a technique to validate equations of state (EOS) for rapidly Joule-heated conductors. The balance of internal and magnetic forces at the conductor-insulator interface drives the metal there along the …

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 065202] Published Tue Jun 04, 2024

]]>Shock-driven implosions with 100% deuterium (${\mathrm{D}}_{2}$) gas fill compared to implosions with 50:50 nitrogen-deuterium (${\mathrm{N}}_{2}{\mathrm{D}}_{2}$) gas fill have been performed at the OMEGA laser facility to test the impact of the added mid-$Z$ fill gas on implosion performance. Ion temperature (${T}_{\mathrm{ion}}$) as inferred from the width of…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 065201] Published Mon Jun 03, 2024

]]>Complicated many-body interactions between ions and surrounding particles exist in warm and hot dense plasmas. It will significantly alter the atomic structures and dynamic properties of the embedded ions. Recently, the atomic-state-dependent (ASD) screening model has been proposed and shown to be v…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 055205] Published Wed May 29, 2024

]]>In the study we thoroughly analyze diffraction effects accompanying the laser beam transmission through inhomogeneous plasma microstructures and simulate their diffraction patterns at the object output and in the near field. For this we solve the scalar Helmholtz wave equation in the first Rytov app…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 055204] Published Tue May 14, 2024

]]>When injected into a plasma, a proton bunch triggers oscillatory phenomena which can lead to different instability regimes. The authors present experimental evidence of the appearance of the oblique two-stream instability, generating filamentation in the bunch-plasma system, in accordance with theoretical and numerical predictions.

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 055203] Published Tue May 07, 2024

]]>Plasma wakefield acceleration represented a breakthrough in the field of particle accelerators by pushing beams to gigaelectronvolt energies within centimeter distances. The large electric fields excited by a driver pulse in the plasma can efficiently accelerate a trailing witness bunch paving the w…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 055202] Published Fri May 03, 2024

]]>We provide analytic expressions for the effective Coulomb logarithm for inverse bremsstrahlung absorption which predict significant corrections to the Langdon effect and overall absorption rate compared to previous estimates. The calculation of the collisional absorption rate of laser energy in a pl…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 055201] Published Wed May 01, 2024

]]>Precise modeling of shocks in inertial confinement fusion implosions is critical for obtaining the desired compression in experiments. Shock velocities and postshock conditions are determined by laser-energy deposition, heat conduction, and equations of state. This paper describes experiments at the…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 045209] Published Wed Apr 24, 2024

]]>For low-density plasmas, the ionization balance can be properly described by the normal Saha equation in the chemical picture. For dense plasmas, however, nonideal effects due to the interactions between the electrons and ions and among the electrons themselves affect the ionization potential depres…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 045210] Published Wed Apr 24, 2024

]]>We present evidence for nonlocal contributions to the turbulent energy cascade in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasmas. Therefore, we revisit a well-known result derived directly from the MHD equations, i.e., the Politano and Pouquet law for the transfer of kinetic and magnetic energy in scale. We prop…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 045208] Published Tue Apr 23, 2024

]]>The interplay of kinetic electron physics and atomic processes in ultrashort laser-plasma interactions provides a comprehensive understanding of the impact of the electron energy distribution on plasma properties. Notably, nonequilibrium electrons play a vital role in collisional ionization, influen…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 045207] Published Wed Apr 17, 2024

]]>The deceleration of a low-density beam of ions in plasma with developed ion-acoustic turbulence arising in strong electric field is described. The time and length of beam deceleration along and across the anisotropy axis of the wave number distribution of ion-acoustic waves are found. It is shown to…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 045206] Published Tue Apr 16, 2024

]]>To find a way to control the electron-bunching process and the bunch-emitting directions when an ultraintense, linearly polarized laser pulse interacts with a nanoscale target, we explored the mechanisms for the periodical generation of relativistic attosecond electron bunches. By comparing the simu…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 045205] Published Fri Apr 12, 2024

]]>We report on experiments where solid-density Mg plasmas are created by heating with the focused output of the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray free-electron laser. We study the K-shell emission from the helium- and lithium-like ions using Bragg crystal spectroscopy. Observation of the dielectronic …

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 045204] Published Wed Apr 10, 2024

]]>Electronic excitation and ionization in oxygen-argon mixtures are analyzed using a three-temperature electronic state-resolved model and evaluated using recent experimental data from reflected shock experiments. A detailed description of the model formulation and parameter selection is provided. Exc…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 045203] Published Mon Apr 08, 2024

]]>In this Letter, we introduce an inline model for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), which runs on our radiation hydrodynamics code troll. This model accounts for nonlinear kinetic effects and for the SRS feedback on the plasma hydrodynamics. We dubbed it PIEM because it is a fully “PredIctivE Model,…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, L043201] Published Mon Apr 08, 2024

]]>An inclusive framework for joined Hamiltonian and dissipative dynamical systems that are thermodynamically consistent, i.e., preserve energy and produce entropy, is given. The dissipative dynamics of the framework is based on the *metriplectic 4-bracket*, a quantity like the Poisson bracket defined on…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 045202] Published Fri Apr 05, 2024

]]>Magnetically confined fusion plasmas are subject to various instabilities that cause turbulent transport of particles and heat across the magnetic field. In the edge plasma region, this transport takes the form of long filaments stretched along the magnetic field lines. Understanding the dynamics of…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 045201] Published Wed Apr 03, 2024

]]>According to quantum electrodynamics, in very strong electromagnetic fields electron–positron pairs can be created, and with a high density of pairs an electron-positron plasma can form. In this paper, the authors simulate this process for a relativistic electron beam colliding with an intense laser pulse, and identify observations that could be used as diagnostics in future experiments.

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 035208] Published Wed Mar 27, 2024

]]>The National Ignition Facility has recently achieved successful burning plasma and ignition using the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) approach. However, there are still many fundamental physics phenomena that are not well understood, including the kinetic processes in the hohlraum. Shan *et al.* [Ph…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 035207] Published Wed Mar 13, 2024

]]>Double-layer targets (DLTs), made of a low-density foam on top of a solid substrate, can efficiently convert the energy of a high-intensity laser to provide sources of photons and protons. We investigate a 30-fs pulse with a peak intensity of $I\sim 8.7\times {10}^{20}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{W}/{\mathrm{cm}}^{2}$ and a peak power of $\sim 120$ TW interacting w…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 035206] Published Tue Mar 12, 2024

]]>The double-cone ignition (DCI) scheme has been proposed as one of the alternative approaches to inertial confinement fusion, based on direct-drive and fast-ignition, in order to reduce the requirement for the driver energy. To evaluate the conical implosion energetics from the laser beams to the pla…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 035205] Published Mon Mar 11, 2024

]]>During the ultraintense laser interaction with solids (overdense plasmas), the competition between two possible quantum electrodynamics (QED) mechanisms responsible for ${e}^{\pm}$ pair production, i.e., linear and nonlinear Breit-Wheeler (BW) processes, remains to be studied. Here, we have implemented the l…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 035204] Published Fri Mar 08, 2024

]]>We present a mode-coupled weakly nonlinear model for the evolution of perturbations on cylindrical multilayered shells in a decelerating implosion. We show that nonlinear mode-mode interactions among large wave-number fundamental modes are able to induce the growth of small wave number harmonic mode…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 035203] Published Tue Mar 05, 2024

]]>Accurate modeling of warm and hot dense matter is challenging in part due to the multitude of excited states that must be considered. Here, we present a variational framework that models these excited states. In this framework an excited state is defined by a set of effective one-electron occupation…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 035201] Published Mon Mar 04, 2024

]]>Molecular dynamical simulations are performed to investigate the scaling of the transverse sound speed in two-dimensional (2D) and 3D Yukawa fluids. From the calculated diagnostics of the radial distribution function, the mean-squared displacement, and the Pearson correlation coefficient, the approx…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 035202] Published Mon Mar 04, 2024

]]>Spectral modulation of high-order harmonics generated in relativistic laser-solid interaction is investigated. Numerical simulations show that the modulation depends on surface plasma density profile, resulting in spectral envelope modulation and regular and irregular harmonic splitting. The mathema…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025212] Published Mon Feb 26, 2024

]]>This paper presents a numeric study of the dynamic stabilization of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability (ARTI) in the presence of a temporally modulated laser pulse. The results show that the specially modulated laser produces a dynamically stabilized configuration near the ablation front. The …

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025213] Published Mon Feb 26, 2024

]]>The quality of the proton beam produced by target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) with high-power lasers can be significantly improved with the use of helical coils. While they showed promising results in terms of focusing, their performances in terms of the of cut-off energy and bunching stay lim…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025211] Published Fri Feb 23, 2024

]]>Sandberg and Thomas [Phys. Rev. Lett. **130**, 085001 (2023)] proposed a scheme to generate ultrashort, high-energy pulses of XUV photons though dephasingless photon acceleration in a beam-driven plasma wakefield. An ultrashort laser pulse is placed in the plasma wake behind a relativistic electron bunc…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025210] Published Fri Feb 16, 2024

]]>When a refractive index modulation of dispersive medium moves at the speed of light in vacuum, an incident electromagnetic wave, depending on its frequency, either is totally transmitted with a phase shift, or forms a standing wave, or is totally reflected with the frequency upshift. The luminal mir…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, L023202] Published Thu Feb 15, 2024

]]>Inhomogeneous mixing by stationary convective cells set in a fixed array is a particularly simple route to layering. Layered profile structures, or staircases, have been observed in many systems, including drift-wave turbulence in magnetic confinement devices. The simplest type of staircase occurs i…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025209] Published Wed Feb 14, 2024

]]>It was observed experimentally that after crossing a waveguide filled with a neutral gas a short powerful microwave pulse leaves a periodic glow of plasma along the waveguide, persisting for several tens of nanoseconds. A theoretical model is presented which in combination with numerical simulations…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025208] Published Tue Feb 13, 2024

]]>We discuss conditions for the enhancement of fusion reactivities arising from different choices of energy distribution functions for the reactants. The key element for potential gains in fusion reactivity is identified in the functional dependence of the tunneling coefficient on the energy, ensuring…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025207] Published Fri Feb 09, 2024

]]>Ionization is a problematic quantity in that it does not have a well-defined thermodynamic definition and yet it is a key parameter within plasma modeling. One still therefore aims to find a consistent and unambiguous definition for the ionization state. Within this context we present finite-tempera…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, L023201] Published Thu Feb 08, 2024

]]>In this study, the spatiotemporal evolution of full cycle of high-intensity dc argon arc discharge at atmospheric pressure is investigated by using a transferred arc device, which is easy to be directly observed in the experiment. Combining the voltage and current waveforms with high-speed images, t…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025205] Published Tue Feb 06, 2024

]]>We investigate the accelerator stage of a plasma-modulated plasma accelerator (P-MoPA) [Jakobsson *et al.*, Phys. Rev. Lett. **127**, 184801 (2021)] using both the paraxial wave equation and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We show that adjusting the laser and plasma parameters of the modulator stage …

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025206] Published Tue Feb 06, 2024

]]>The target gain greater than unity achieved in a recent fusion experiment was made possible by using additional laser energy at fixed power and controlling sources of degradation. This resulted in increased compression of the fuel and a high fusion yield corresponding to a novel physical regime. This paper describes the experimental evidence for these critical aspects and new observables.

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025203] Published Mon Feb 05, 2024

]]>In 2022, a National Ignition Facility controlled-fusion experiment reached a target gain $G>1$, with the fusion energy produced exceeding the amount of laser energy required to drive the target. This result was obtained thanks to careful design described in this paper. This design has been shown to be robust and allows a better understanding of the physical conditions necessary to reach ignition.

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025204] Published Mon Feb 05, 2024

]]>Proton bunches with maximum energies between 12 and 22 MeV were emitted from submicrometer-thin plastic foils upon irradiation by laser pulses with peak intensity of $4\times {10}^{20}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{W}/{\mathrm{cm}}^{2}$. The images of the protons by a magnetic quadrupole doublet on a screen remained consistently larger by a factor of 10 com…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025201] Published Fri Feb 02, 2024

]]>The properties of plasmas in the low-density limit are described by virial expansions. Analytical expressions are known from Green's function approaches only for the first three virial coefficients. Accurate path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations have recently been performed for the uniform el…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 025202] Published Fri Feb 02, 2024

]]>Quasimonoenergetic GeV-scale protons are predicted to be efficiently generated via radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) when the foil thickness is matched with the laser intensity, e.g., ${L}_{\mathrm{mat}}$ of several nm to 100 nm for ${10}^{19}-{10}^{22}\mathrm{W}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}{\mathrm{cm}}^{-2}$ available in laboratory. However, nonmonoenergetic protons with …

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015208] Published Fri Jan 26, 2024

]]>Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations are able to model the generation of disk-shaped plasma, driven by laser ablation from a current-carrying rod in a pulsed-power machine producing azimuthal magnetic fields of $2-3$ MG. The plasma at such extreme conditions is unique in that the paramete…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015207] Published Wed Jan 24, 2024

]]>Understanding magnetic field growth in astrophysical objects is a persistent challenge. In stars and galaxies, turbulent flows with net kinetic helicity are believed to be responsible for driving large-scale magnetic fields. However, numerical simulations have demonstrated that such helical dynamos …

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015206] Published Fri Jan 19, 2024

]]>Shot-to-shot electron beam pointing instability in the plasma bubble, defined here as electron beam pointing jitter (EBJ), is a long-standing problem that limits the potential of the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) in a range of demanding applications. In general, EBJ is caused by variations in l…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015204] Published Tue Jan 16, 2024

]]>A common approach to assess the nature of energy conversion in a classical fluid or plasma is to compare power densities of the various possible energy conversion mechanisms. A leading research area is quantifying energy conversion for systems that are not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), a…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015205] Published Tue Jan 16, 2024

]]>Powerful astrophysical sources are known to interact with their surroundings via extreme radiation-plasma interactions resulting from large quantities of emitted nonthermal radiation. This paper studies the physical processes involved in such interactions, combining analytical approximations with numerical simulations, and unveils a complex sequence of particle acceleration processes.

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015203] Published Mon Jan 08, 2024

]]>Magnetic fields influence ion transport in plasmas. Straightforward comparisons of experimental measurements with plasma theories are complicated when the plasma is inhomogeneous, far from equilibrium, or characterized by strong gradients. To better understand ion transport in a partially magnetized…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015201] Published Fri Jan 05, 2024

]]>We investigate chaotic impurity transport in toroidal fusion plasmas (tokamaks) from the point of view of passive advection of charged particles due to $\mathbf{E}\times \mathbf{B}$ drift motion. We use realistic tokamak profiles for electric and magnetic fields as well as toroidal rotation effects, and consider also the eff…

[Phys. Rev. E 109, 015202] Published Fri Jan 05, 2024

]]>Terahertz (THz) emissions from fast electron and ion currents driven in relativistic, femtosecond laser-foil interactions are examined theoretically. We first consider the radiation from the energetic electrons exiting the backside of the target. Our kinetic model takes account of the coherent trans…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065211] Published Fri Dec 29, 2023

]]>By producing localized wave regions at the ends of an open-field-line magnetic confinement system, ponderomotive walls can be used to differentially confine different species in the plasma. Furthermore, if the plasma is rotating, this wall can be magnetostatic in the laboratory frame, resulting in s…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065210] Published Wed Dec 27, 2023

]]>This paper proposes a transient three-dimensional model to simulate microwave-induced discharges in a waveguide-based plasma source under intermediate pressures. A plane-symmetric simplification method is applied to simplify half of the microwave plasma source in the calculation domain, dramatically…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065209] Published Thu Dec 21, 2023

]]>Recent studies have revealed the significant influence of finite resistivity on high-energy-density plasmas, contrary to the previous findings of Jukes [J. Fluid Mech. **16**, 177 (1963)]. This paper reexamines Jukes' theory in the context of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability in magnetohydrodynamics w…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065208] Published Wed Dec 13, 2023

]]>Kappa-distributed velocities in plasmas are common in a wide variety of settings, from low-density to high-density plasmas. To date, they have been found mainly in space plasmas, but are recently being considered also in the modeling of laboratory plasmas. Despite being routinely employed, the origi…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065207] Published Fri Dec 08, 2023

]]>The article presents the results of the study of electrons, emitted by the plasma of a low-inductance vacuum spark. It was found that a 50-kA discharge with a 3.4-µs period of current oscillations produces electrons with the energy higher than 100 keV, which leave the discharge plasma in the directi…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065206] Published Wed Dec 06, 2023

]]>The contribution of the electron drift instability to anomalous electron transport is experimentally assessed in a Hall effect discharge. The transport is represented by an anomalous collision frequency, which is related through quasilinear theory to the energy and growth rate of the instability. Th…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065204] Published Tue Dec 05, 2023

]]>The response of a two-dimensional plasma crystal to an externally imposed initial perturbation has been explored using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A two-dimensional (2D) monolayer of micron-sized charged particles (dust) is formed in the plasma environment under certain conditions. The part…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065202] Published Mon Dec 04, 2023

]]>We report on the experimental observation of the focusing effect of a $50\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{MeV}$ accelerator electron beam in a gas-discharge plasma target. The plasma is generated by igniting an electric discharge in two collinear quartz tubes, with the currents up to $1.5\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{kA}$ flowing in opposite directions in either of t…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065203] Published Mon Dec 04, 2023

]]>Magnetorotational instability–driven (MRI-driven) turbulence and dynamo phenomena are analyzed using direct statistical simulations. Our approach begins by developing a unified mean-field model that combines the traditionally decoupled problems of the large-scale dynamo and angular momentum transpor…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 065201] Published Fri Dec 01, 2023

]]>Since the characteristic timescales of the various transport processes inside the discharge plasma span several orders of magnitude, it can be regarded as a typical fast-slow system. Interestingly, in this work, a special kind of complex oscillatory dynamics composed of a series of large-amplitude r…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055210] Published Mon Nov 27, 2023

]]>We present measurements of the temporal decay rate of one-dimensional (1D), linear Langmuir waves excited by an ultrashort laser pulse. Langmuir waves with relative amplitudes of approximately $6\%$ were driven by $1.7\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{J}$, $50\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{fs}$ laser pulses in hydrogen and deuterium plasmas of density ${n}_{e0}=8.4\times {10}^{17}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}{\mathrm{cm}}^{-3}$. Th…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055211] Published Mon Nov 27, 2023

]]>We present improved first-principle fermionic path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulation results for a dense partially ionized hydrogen (deuterium) plasma, for temperatures in the range $15\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}000\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{K}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\le T\le 400\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}000\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{K}$ and densities $7\times {10}^{-7}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{g}/{\mathrm{cm}}^{3}\le {\rho}_{H}\le 0.085\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{g}/{\mathrm{cm}}^{3}$ ($1.4\times {10}^{-6}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{g}/{\mathrm{cm}}^{3}\le {\rho}_{D}\le 0.17\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\mathrm{g}/{\mathrm{cm}}^{3}$), corresponding to $100\ge {r}_{s}\ge 2$,…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055212] Published Mon Nov 27, 2023

]]>We report the study of a self-excited converging shock structure observed in a complex plasma medium. A high-density dust cloud of melamine formaldehyde particles is created and horizontally confined by a circular ring in a dc glow discharge plasma at a particular discharge voltage and pressure. Lat…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055209] Published Wed Nov 22, 2023

]]>We report a proposal to observe the two-photon Breit-Wheeler process in plasma driven by compact lasers. A high-charge electron bunch can be generated from laser plasma wakefield acceleration when a tightly focused laser pulse propagates in a subcritical density plasma. The electron bunch scatters w…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055208] Published Tue Nov 21, 2023

]]>Inertial confinement fusion ignition requires high inflight shell velocity, good energy coupling between the hotspot and shell, and high areal density at peak compression. Three-dimensional asymmetries caused by imperfections in the drive symmetry or target can grow and damage the coupling and confi…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, L053203] Published Mon Nov 20, 2023

]]>The theoretical background of the nonperturbative method of spectral response to stochastic processes (SRSP) for measuring the nonreciprocal interparticle effective interactions in strongly coupled underdamped systems is described. Analytical expressions for vibrational spectral density of confined …

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055207] Published Fri Nov 17, 2023

]]>In this paper, a phase-space description of electron-positron pair creation will be applied, based on a Wigner transformation of the Klein-Gordon equation. The resulting theory is similar in many respects to the equations from the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism. However, in the former case, all p…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055205] Published Mon Nov 13, 2023

]]>For tokamaks with uniform magnetic shear, Martin and Taylor have proposed a symplectic map which has been used to describe the magnetic field lines at the plasma edge perturbed by an ergodic magnetic limiter. We propose an analytical magnetic field line map, based on the Martin-Taylor map, for a tok…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055206] Published Mon Nov 13, 2023

]]>A pulse of noninteracting charged particles in an unbounded gas, exposed to a low, constant, homogeneous electric field, was studied in both space and time using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The difference in electrical potential between the leading and trailing edges of the swarm results in …

[Phys. Rev. E 108, L053202] Published Mon Nov 13, 2023

]]>We present a staged hot-electron acceleration mechanism of the two-plasmon decay (TPD) instability in the transverse magnetic field under the parameters relevant to inertial confinement fusion experiments. After being accelerated by the forward electron plasma wave (FEPW) of TPD, the hot-electrons c…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, L053201] Published Tue Nov 07, 2023

]]>Volume plasma density gratings receive increasing interest since, compared to solid-state optical media, they posses significantly higher damage thresholds. The gratings are produced by counterpropagating laser pulses in underdense plasma. When analyzing their optical properties, usually they are as…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055204] Published Mon Nov 06, 2023

]]>The copropagation of two relativistic intense laser beams with orthogonal polarization in a parabolic plasma channel is studied analytically and numerically. A set of coupled equations for the evolution of the laser spot sizes and transverse centroids are derived by use of the variational approach. …

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055202] Published Thu Nov 02, 2023

]]>We study the dispersion properties of electron plasma waves, or plasmons, which can be excited in quantum plasmas in the nonlinear regime. In order to describe nonlinear electron response to finite amplitude plasmons, we apply the Volkov approach to nonrelativistic electrons. For that purpose, we us…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055203] Published Thu Nov 02, 2023

]]>The investigation of the converging shock-induced Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, which arises from the interaction of converging shocks with the interface between materials of differing densities in cylindrical capsules, is of significant importance in the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF).…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 055201] Published Wed Nov 01, 2023

]]>With the advancement in the understanding of plasma discontinuous structures and the progress of related research, numerical methods for simulating plasmas based on continuous medium approach have encountered significant challenges. In this paper, a numerical model is presented to simulate the motio…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 045207] Published Mon Oct 23, 2023

]]>To achieve the highest possible laser intensities with the least laser energy, shorter-wavelengths lasers are advantaged if they can be focused to spots of a few laser wavelengths and durations of several laser periods. However, the top laser pulse energies available nowadays are megajoules at near-…

[Phys. Rev. E 108, 045208] Published Mon Oct 23, 2023

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