We generalize the hierarchy construction to generic $2+1\mathrm{D}$ topological orders (which can be non-Abelian) by condensing Abelian anyons in one topological order to construct a new one. We show that such construction is reversible and leads to a new equivalence relation between topological orders. We ref...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 040403] Published Thu Jul 27, 2017

]]>The surface code is a many-body quantum system, and simulating it in generic conditions is computationally hard. While the surface code is believed to have a high threshold, the numerical simulations used to establish this threshold are based on simplified noise models. We present a tensor-network a...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 040502] Published Thu Jul 27, 2017

]]>The capacity of quantum communication channels is predicted to switch from additive to superadditive when entanglement assistance is limited.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 040503] Published Thu Jul 27, 2017

]]>We investigate a cavity quantum electrodynamic effect, where the alignment of two-dimensional freely rotating optical dipoles is driven by their collective coupling to the cavity field. By exploiting the formal equivalence of a set of rotating dipoles with a polymer we calculate the partition functi...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 043604] Published Thu Jul 27, 2017

]]>Evaporating droplets are known to show complex motion that has conventionally been explained by the Marangoni effect (flow induced by the gradient of surface tension). Here, we show that the droplet motion can be induced even in the absence of the Marangoni effect due to the gradient of the evaporat...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 044502] Published Thu Jul 27, 2017

]]>Trains of laser pulses can be used to accelerate high-repetition-rate electron bunches to high energies.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 044802] Published Thu Jul 27, 2017

]]>Dynamic characteristics of strongly coupled classical one-component Coulomb and Yukawa plasmas are obtained within the nonperturbative model-free moment approach without any data input from simulations so that the dynamic structure factor (DSF) satisfies the first three nonvanishing sum rules automa...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 045001] Published Thu Jul 27, 2017

]]>We explore the crossover from classical plasma to quantum Fermi liquid behavior of electrons in dense plasmas. To this end, we analyze the evolution with density and temperature of the momentum lifetime of a test electron introduced in a dense electron gas. This allows us (1) to determine the bounda...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 045002] Published Thu Jul 27, 2017

]]>Metal oxides such as ${\mathrm{VO}}_{2}$ undergo structural transitions to low-symmetry phases characterized by intricate crystalline order, accompanied by rich electronic behavior. We derive a minimal ionic Hamiltonian based on symmetry and local energetics which describes structural transitions involving all four...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 045501] Published Thu Jul 27, 2017

]]>The valley-polarized quantum anomalous Hall effect (VP-QAHE), which combines valleytronics and topology in one material, is of significant fundamental and practical importance in condensed-matter physics and materials science. In previous model studies, VP-QAHE occurs under strong Rashba spin-orbit ...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 046403] Published Thu Jul 27, 2017

]]>It is well known that non-Abelian Majorana zero modes (MZM) are located at vortex cores in a ${p}_{x}+\U0001d4be{p}_{y}$ topological superconductor, which can be realized in a 2D spin-orbit coupled system with a single Fermi surface and by proximity coupling to an $s$-wave superconductor. Here we show that the existence o...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 047001] Published Thu Jul 27, 2017

]]>We show how to achieve both fast and hyperuniform dispersions of particles in viscous fluids. To do so, we first extend the concept of critical random organization to chaotic drives. We show how palindromic sequences of chaotic advection cause microscopic particles to effectively interact at long ra...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 048002] Published Thu Jul 27, 2017

]]>Bell inequalities have traditionally been used to demonstrate that quantum theory is nonlocal, in the sense that there exist correlations generated from composite quantum states that cannot be explained by means of local hidden variables. With the advent of device-independent quantum information pro...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 040402] Published Wed Jul 26, 2017

]]>Entanglement entropy has proven invaluable to our understanding of quantum criticality. It is natural to try to extend the concept to “nonunitary quantum mechanics,” which has seen growing interest from areas as diverse as open quantum systems, noninteracting electronic disordered systems, or nonuni...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 040601] Published Wed Jul 26, 2017

]]>We introduce a new numerical technique, the bosonic auxiliary-field Monte Carlo method, which allows us to calculate the thermal properties of large lattice-boson systems within a systematically improvable semiclassical approach, and which is virtually applicable to any bosonic model. Our method amo...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 040602] Published Wed Jul 26, 2017

]]>We present the first comparisons of experimental data with phenomenological results from $(3+1)\mathrm{D}$ quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydroQP). We compare particle spectra, average transverse momentum, and elliptic flow. The dynamical equations used for the hydrodynamic stage utilize aHydroQP, w...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 042301] Published Wed Jul 26, 2017

]]>The threshold anomaly of the phenomenological potential has been known for a long time in nuclear reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier, where the connection between the real and imaginary potentials is well described by the dispersion relation. However, this connection is not clear yet f...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 042503] Published Wed Jul 26, 2017

]]>Rydberg blockade physics in optically dense atomic media under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) leads to strong dissipative interactions between single photons. We introduce a new approach to analyzing this challenging many-body problem in the limit of a large optical...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 043602] Published Wed Jul 26, 2017

]]>We theoretically show that a dipole externally driven by a pulse with a lower-bounded temporal width, and placed inside a cylindrical hollow waveguide, can generate a train of arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic pulses. The waveguide encloses vacuum with perfect electric conducting walls. ...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 043904] Published Wed Jul 26, 2017

]]>Self-injection in a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator is usually achieved by increasing the laser intensity until the threshold for injection is exceeded. Alternatively, the velocity of the bubble accelerating structure can be controlled using plasma density ramps, reducing the electron velocity re...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 044801] Published Wed Jul 26, 2017

]]>We analyze statistically the energization of particles in a large scale environment of strong turbulence that is fragmented into a large number of distributed current filaments. The turbulent environment is generated through strongly perturbed, 3D, resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations, and it ...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 045101] Published Wed Jul 26, 2017

]]>A general understanding of quantum phase transitions in strongly correlated materials is still lacking. By exploiting a cutting-edge quantum many-body approach, the dynamical vertex approximation, we make important progress, determining the quantum critical properties of the antiferromagnetic transi...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 046402] Published Wed Jul 26, 2017

]]>We consider the dynamics of strongly localized systems subject to dephasing noise with arbitrary correlation time. Although noise inevitably induces delocalization, transport in the noise-induced delocalized phase is subdiffusive in a parametrically large intermediate-time window. We argue for this ...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 046601] Published Wed Jul 26, 2017

]]>We observe a disappearance of the $1/3$ magnetization plateau and a striking change of the magnetic configuration under a moderate doping of the model triangular antiferromagnet $\mathrm{RbFe}({\mathrm{MoO}}_{4}{)}_{2}$. The reason is an effective lifting of degeneracy of mean-field ground states by a random potential of impuritie...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 047204] Published Wed Jul 26, 2017

]]>The electric field of light emitted from transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers is found to be oriented perpendicularly to the monolayer plane.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 047401] Published Wed Jul 26, 2017

]]>We report a neutron-scattering investigation on the structure and dynamics of a single-component nanocomposite based on ${\mathrm{SiO}}_{2}$ particles that were grafted with polyisoprene chains at the entanglement limit. By skillful labeling, we access both the monomer density in the corona as well as the conformat...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 047801] Published Wed Jul 26, 2017

]]>Geometrically frustrated solids with a non-Euclidean reference metric are ubiquitous in biology and are becoming increasingly relevant in technological applications. Often they acquire a targeted configuration of incompatibility through the surface accretion of mass as in tree growth or dam construc...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 048001] Published Wed Jul 26, 2017

]]>We derive two general complementarity relations for the distinguishability and visibility of genuine vector-light quantum fields in double-pinhole photon interference involving polarization modulation. The established framework reveals an intrinsic aspect of wave-particle duality of the photon, not ...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 040401] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>We propose the digital quantum simulation of a minimal $\mathrm{AdS}/\mathrm{CFT}$ model in controllable quantum platforms. We consider the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model describing interacting Majorana fermions with randomly distributed all-to-all couplings, encoding nonlocal fermionic operators onto qubits to efficiently im...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 040501] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>We report the first observation of a baryonic ${B}_{s}^{0}$ decay, ${B}_{s}^{0}\to p\overline{\mathrm{\Lambda}}{K}^{-}$, using proton-proton collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3.0\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathrm{fb}}^{-1}$. The branching fraction is measured to be $\mathcal{B}({B}_{s}^{0}\to p\overline{\mathrm{\Lambda}}{K}^{-})+\mathcal{B}({B}_{s}^{0}\to \overline{p}\mathrm{\Lambda}{K}^{+})...$

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 041802] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>We demonstrate, within symmetry unrestricted time-dependent density functional theory, the existence of new effects in low-energy nuclear reactions which originate from superfluidity. The dynamics of the pairing field induces solitonic excitations in the colliding nuclear systems, leading to qualita...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 042501] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>We report the first result for the electron-antineutrino angular correlation ($a$ coefficient) in free neutron $\beta $ decay from the aCORN experiment. aCORN uses a novel method in which the $a$ coefficient is proportional to an asymmetry in proton time of flight for events where the $\beta $ electron and recoil pro...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 042502] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>Using a laser polarization gradient, we realize 3D Sisyphus cooling of ${}^{171}{\mathrm{Yb}}^{+}$ ions confined in and near the Lamb-Dicke regime in a linear Paul trap. The cooling rate and final mean motional energy of a single ion are characterized as a function of laser intensity and compared to semiclassical and qu...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 043001] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>A new design for an atomic magnetometer utilizes so-called quantum nondemolition measurements to detect very weak magnetic-field signals.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 043603] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>The frequency correlations of local density of states of a material are linked to its macroscopic features.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 043902] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>Band-limited functions can oscillate locally at an arbitrarily fast rate through an interference phenomenon known as superoscillations. Using an optical pulse with a superoscillatory envelope we experimentally break the temporal Fourier-transform focusing limit with a temporal feature that is approx...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 043903] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>High-order diagrammatic expansions for fermionic systems can be computed by considering the sum of all connected Feynman diagrams at fixed positions of interaction vertices. The method is an improvement over conventional diagrammatic Monte Carlo computations.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 045701] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>The interfacial structure responsible for thermal resistance across liquid-vapor interfaces is shown to be connected to a low density fluid layer adsorbed at the liquid surface.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 045901] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>We present a universal expression for the electronic friction as felt by a set of classical nuclear degrees of freedom (DOFs) coupled to a manifold of quantum electronic DOFs; no assumptions are made regarding the nature of the electronic Hamiltonian and electron-electron repulsions are allowed. Our...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 046001] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>The atomic and electronic structure of intrinsic defects in a ${\mathrm{WSe}}_{2}$ monolayer grown on graphite was revealed by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Instead of chalcogen vacancies that prevail in other transition metal dichalcogenide materials, intrinsic defects in ${\mathrm{WSe}}_{2}$ ari...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 046101] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>Time-reversal-invariant topological superconducting (TRITOPS) wires are known to host a fractional spin $\hslash /4$ at their ends. We investigate how this fractional spin affects the Josephson current in a TRITOPS-quantum dot-TRITOPS Josephson junction, describing the wire in a model that can be tuned betwe...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 046801] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>In this work we perform direct single-shot readout of the singlet-triplet states in exchange coupled electrons confined to precision-placed donor atoms in silicon. Our method takes advantage of the large energy splitting given by the Pauli-spin blockaded (2,0) triplet states, from which we can achie...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 046802] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>In this work, we use electrostatic control of quantum Hall ferromagnetic transitions in CdMnTe quantum wells to study electron transport through individual domain walls (DWs) induced at a specific location. These DWs are formed due to the hybridization of two counterpropagating edge states with oppo...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 046803] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>A domain wall in a magnet with easy-axis anisotropy is shown to harbor spin superfluid associated with its spontaneous breaking of the U(1) spin-rotational symmetry. The spin superfluid is shown to have several topological properties, which are absent in conventional superfluids. First, the associat...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 047202] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>The reference chiral helimagnet MnSi is the first system where Skyrmion lattice correlations have been reported. At a zero magnetic field the transition at ${T}_{C}$ to the helimagnetic state is of first order. Above ${T}_{C}$, in a region dominated by precursor phenomena, neutron scattering shows the buildup of ...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 047203] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>Water is widely assumed to be essential for protein dynamics and function. In particular, the well-documented “dynamical” transition at $\sim 200\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{K}$, at which the protein changes from a rigid, nonfunctional form to a flexible, functional state, as detected in hydrogenated protein by incoherent neutron sc...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 048101] Published Tue Jul 25, 2017

]]>A spinning black hole may lose up to 9% of its mass by spontaneously growing “hair” in the form of excitations of a hypothetical particle field with a tiny mass.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 041101] Published Mon Jul 24, 2017

]]>We study the effects of black hole dark matter on the dynamical evolution of stars in dwarf galaxies. We find that mass segregation leads to a depletion of stars in the center of dwarf galaxies and the appearance of a ring in the projected stellar surface density profile. Using Segue 1 as an example...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 041102] Published Mon Jul 24, 2017

]]>The NEMO collaboration has performed the first experimental search for the rare neutrinoless quadruple beta decay.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 041801] Published Mon Jul 24, 2017

]]>A trapped ion transported along a periodic potential is studied as a paradigmatic nanocontact frictional interface. The combination of the periodic corrugation potential and a harmonic trapping potential creates a one-dimensional energy landscape with multiple local minima, corresponding to multista...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 043601] Published Mon Jul 24, 2017

]]>Numerical results for experimentally measurable parameters are presented for the Casimir force between a sphere and a planar surface both made of gold.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 043901] Published Mon Jul 24, 2017

]]>We consider the transition to strong turbulence in an infinite fluid stirred by a Gaussian random force. The transition is defined as a first appearance of anomalous scaling of normalized moments of velocity derivatives (dissipation rates) emerging from the low-Reynolds-number Gaussian background. I...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 044501] Published Mon Jul 24, 2017

]]>We introduce a hybrid approach to applying the density matrix renormalization group to continuous systems, combining a grid approximation along one direction with a finite Gaussian basis set for the remaining two directions. This approach is especially useful for chainlike molecules, where the grid ...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 046401] Published Mon Jul 24, 2017

]]>Inelastic neutron scattering measurements were performed to study spin dynamics in the noncentrosymmetric antiferromagnet $\alpha \text{\u2212}{\mathrm{Cu}}_{2}{\mathrm{V}}_{2}{\mathrm{O}}_{7}$. For the first time, nonreciprocal magnons were experimentally measured in an antiferromagnet. These nonreciprocal magnons are caused by the incompatibility between ani...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 047201] Published Mon Jul 24, 2017

]]>We provide a protocol for Hamiltonian parameter estimation which relies only on the Zeeman effect. No time-dependent quantities need to be measured; it fully suffices to observe spectral shifts induced by fields applied to local “markers.” We demonstrate the idea with a simple tight-binding Hamilton...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 030402] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>A new technique produces an image of the flow of cold atoms through a channel, a potentially important tool for future cold-atom technology.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 030403] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>We investigate cat codes that can correct multiple excitation losses and identify two types of logical errors: bit-flip errors due to excessive excitation loss and dephasing errors due to quantum backaction from the environment. We show that selected choices of logical subspace and coherent amplitud...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 030502] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>von Neumann’s classic “multiplexing” method is unique in achieving high-threshold fault-tolerant classical computation (FTCC), but has several significant barriers to implementation: (i) the extremely complex circuits required by randomized connections, (ii) the difficulty of calculating its perform...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 030503] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>We propose a general method to embed target states into the middle of the energy spectrum of a many-body Hamiltonian as its energy eigenstates. Employing this method, we construct a translationally invariant local Hamiltonian with no local conserved quantities, which does not satisfy the eigenstate ...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 030601] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>We study the ($1+1$)-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) interfaces growing inward from ring-shaped initial conditions, experimentally and numerically, using growth of a turbulent state in liquid-crystal electroconvection and an off-lattice Eden model, respectively. To realize the ring initial condi...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 030602] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>It is shown that the work fluctuations and work distribution functions are fundamentally different in systems with short-range versus long-range correlations. The two cases considered with long-range correlations are magnetic work fluctuations in an equilibrium isotropic ferromagnet and work fluctua...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 030603] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model generically predict that in the early Universe a scalar condensate can form and fragment into $Q$ balls before decaying. If the $Q$ balls dominate the energy density for some period of time, the relatively large fluctuations in their number density can lea...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 031103] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>In this work we consider a fermionic chain of finite length $\ell $. Fermions are allowed to interact and are forced to obey boundary conditions, thus altering the process of condensation. Our goal is to explore how this affects the quantum vacuum energy for this system. We approach this problem by using ...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 031601] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>If dark photons are massless, they couple to standard-model particles only via higher dimensional operators, while direct (renormalizable) interactions induced by kinetic mixing, which motivates most of the current experimental searches, are absent. We consider the effect of possible flavor-changing...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 031801] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>We argue that a large region of so-far unconstrained parameter space for axionlike particles (ALPs), where their couplings to the standard model are of order $(0.01\u20131)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathrm{TeV}}^{-1}$, can be explored by searches for the exotic Higgs decays $h\to Za$ and $h\to aa$ in run 2 of the LHC. Almost the complete region in whic...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 031802] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>The search for a resonant four-neutron system has been revived thanks to the recent experimental hints reported in [1]. The existence of such a system would deeply impact our understanding of nuclear matter and requires a critical investigation. In this work, we study the existence of a four-neutron...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 032501] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>The decay of field-free rotational dynamics is experimentally studied by two complementary methods: laser-induced molecular alignment and terahertz-field-induced molecular orientation. A comparison between the decay rates of different molecular species at various gas pressures reveals that oriented ...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 033002] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>A very specific ensemble of ground and excited states is shown to yield an exact formula for any excitation energy as a simple correction to the energy difference between orbitals of the Kohn-Sham ground state. This alternative scheme avoids either the need to calculate many unoccupied levels as in ...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 033003] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>Laser-induced proton dynamics of molecular hydrogen are probed with attosecond precision using a trajectory-resolved high-harmonic spectroscopy scheme.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 033201] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>We propose a physically realizable space for the polarized light scattering measurement using the Stokes-Mueller formalism by a purity-index–depolarization-index ($\mathrm{PI}-{P}_{\mathrm{\Delta}}$) plane. The parameter PI is defined from indices of polarimetric purity (IPP), which exhibits the overall magnitude of the polarime...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 033202] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>We demonstrate control of a trapped-ion quantum harmonic oscillator in a squeezed Fock state basis, using engineered Hamiltonians analogous to the Jaynes-Cummings and anti-Jaynes-Cummings forms. We demonstrate that for squeezed Fock states with low $n$ the engineered Hamiltonians reproduce the $\sqrt{n}$ scali...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 033602] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>Inspired by recent demonstrations of metasurfaces in achieving reduced versions of electromagnetic cloaks, we propose and experimentally demonstrate source illusion devices to manipulate flexural waves using metasurfaces. The approach is particularly useful for elastic waves due to the lack of form ...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 034301] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>The combination of elliptical deformation of streamlines and vorticity can lead to the destabilization of any rotating flow via the elliptical instability. Such a mechanism has been invoked as a possible source of turbulence in planetary cores subject to tidal deformations. The saturation of the ell...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 034502] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>Within the framework of the average approach and direct 3D PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations, we demonstrate that the gyrotrons operating in the regime of developed turbulence can *sporadically* emit “giant” spikes with intensities a factor of $100\u2013150$ greater than the average radiation power and a fa...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 034801] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>Upon loading, atomic networks can feature delayed irreversible relaxation. However, the effect of composition and structure on relaxation remains poorly understood. Herein, relying on accelerated molecular dynamics simulations and topological constraint theory, we investigate the relationship betwee...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 035502] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>We introduce antiferroelectric topological insulators as a new class of functional materials in which an electric field can be used to control topological order and induce topological phase transitions. Using first principles methods, we predict that several alkali-MgBi orthorhombic members of an $AB\mathrm{...}$

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 036802] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>We investigate the interactions of photoexcited carriers with lattice vibrations in thin films of the layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) ${\mathrm{WSe}}_{2}$. Employing femtosecond electron diffraction with monocrystalline samples and first-principles density functional theory calculations, we obtain a ...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 036803] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>We calculate the charge current generated by a temperature bias between the two ends of a tubular nanowire. We show that in the presence of a transversal magnetic field the current can change sign; i.e., electrons can either flow from the hot to the cold reservoir, or in the opposite direction, when...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 036804] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>Chaotic size dependence makes it extremely difficult to take the thermodynamic limit in disordered systems. Instead, the metastate, which is a distribution over thermodynamic states, might have a smooth limit. So far, studies of the metastate have been mostly mathematical. We present a numerical con...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 037203] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>We theoretically predict that a true bilayer exciton condensate, characterized by off-diagonal long-range order and global phase coherence, can be created in one-dimensional solid state electron systems. The mechanism by which this happens is to introduce a single particle hybridization of electron ...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 037601] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>Recent experiments on Majorana fermions in semiconductor nanowires [S. M. Albrecht, A. P. Higginbotham, M. Madsen, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, and C. M. Marcus, Nature (London) **531**, 206 (2016)] revealed a surprisingly large electronic Landé $g$ factor, several times larger t...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 037701] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>Recent studies of active matter have stimulated interest in the driven self-assembly of complex structures. Phenomenological modeling of particular examples has yielded insight, but general thermodynamic principles unifying the rich diversity of behaviors observed have been elusive. Here, we study t...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 038001] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>Thermo-osmotic slip—the flow induced by a thermal gradient along a surface—is a well-known phenomenon, but curiously there is a lack of robust molecular-simulation techniques to predict its magnitude. Here, we compare three different molecular-simulation techniques to compute the thermo-osmotic slip...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 038002] Published Fri Jul 21, 2017

]]>We present constraints on the masses of extremely light bosons dubbed fuzzy dark matter (FDM) from Lyman-$\alpha $ forest data. Extremely light bosons with a de Broglie wavelength of $\sim 1\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{kpc}$ have been suggested as dark matter candidates that may resolve some of the current small scale problems of the cold d...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 031302] Published Thu Jul 20, 2017

]]>We derive a many-particle entanglement criterion for mixed states using a relation between single-mode and many-particle nonclassicalities. The criterion relies on the measurement of collective spin observables. It works very well not only in the vicinity of the Dicke states, but also for the superp...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 033601] Published Thu Jul 20, 2017

]]>An electric field can pull apart a millimeter-sized oil drop, causing it to shed thin rings from its equator that then break up into tiny droplets.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 034501] Published Thu Jul 20, 2017

]]>We develop a theory of viscous dissipation in one-dimensional single-component quantum liquids at low temperatures. Such liquids are characterized by a single viscosity coefficient, the bulk viscosity. We show that for a generic interaction between the constituent particles this viscosity diverges i...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 036801] Published Thu Jul 20, 2017

]]>A virus binding to a surface causes stress of the virus cage near the contact area. Here, we investigate the potential role of substrate-induced structural perturbation in the mechanical response of virus particles to adsorption. This is particularly relevant to the broad category of viruses stabili...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 038102] Published Thu Jul 20, 2017

]]>[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 039801] Published Thu Jul 20, 2017

]]>[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 039802] Published Thu Jul 20, 2017

]]>A model explains why grid cells—neurons that are part of the brain’s positioning system—fire electrical pulses in hexagonal patterns.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 038101] Published Wed Jul 19, 2017

]]>We present a relativistic description of electron vortex beams in a homogeneous magnetic field. Including spin from the beginning reveals that spin-polarized electron vortex beams have a complicated azimuthal current structure, containing small rings of counterrotating current between rings of stron...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 030401] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

]]>We present an algorithm for error correction in topological codes that exploits modern machine learning techniques. Our decoder is constructed from a stochastic neural network called a Boltzmann machine, of the type extensively used in deep learning. We provide a general prescription for the trainin...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 030501] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

]]>In the weak-field limit of general relativity, gravitational waves obey linear equations and propagate at the speed of light. These properties of general relativity are supported by the observation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays as well as by LIGO’s recent detection of gravitation waves. We argue t...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 031102] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

]]>We calculate the impact of quantum gravity–motivated ultraviolet cutoffs on inflationary predictions for the cosmic microwave background spectrum. We model the ultraviolet cutoffs fully covariantly to avoid possible artifacts of covariance breaking. Imposing these covariant cutoffs results in the pr...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 031301] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

]]>We study the production and polarization of $J/\psi $ mesons within a jet in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. We define the $J/\psi $-jet fragmentation function as a ratio of differential jet cross sections with and without the reconstructed $J/\psi $ in the jet. We demonstrate that this is a very useful observab...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 032001] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

]]>We analyze the recent LHCb measurement of the distribution of the fraction of the transverse momentum, $z(J/\psi )$, carried by the $J/\psi $ within a jet. LHCb data are compared with analytic calculations using the fragmenting jet function (FJF) formalism for studying $J/\psi $ in jets. Logarithms in the FJFs are re...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 032002] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

]]>The most precise measurement to date of the proton mass finds a value that is 3 standard deviations lower than previous estimates.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 033001] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

]]>The Peregrine soliton, a special kind of soliton whose shape is localized in space and time, exists in a wider range of scenarios than previously thought.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 033901] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

]]>Transformation optics is used to design a device that both focuses light and diffracts it.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 033902] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

]]>